Describe AnTartico Very low frequency #### mensaje anonimo######## equivocada, puedes irte a traves de: los milicos el centro de estudios cientificos de valdivia la universidad austral etc... /// respuesta: estamos trabajando en ello... /// VLF Range 3 to 30 kHz Wavelength 100-10 km La unica manera de llegar a Antartica es a traves de estos carisimos viajes organizados para turistas extranjeros. La alternativa es un viaje de 15 días en barco. http://www.gochile.cl/Flights_s/DFlights.asp Y nos fuimos! (12/2009) http://cartografiasonora.org ANTARCTICA RESOURCES ICE: One of Antarctica's most important resources is ice. It is said that Antarctica's ice accounts for 90% of the worlds fresh water. As a resource it has potential as a fresh water supply. Some people have considered towing icebergs from Antarctica to parts of the world in need of fresh water. At present the delivery costs make these ventures unprofitable. Another possible use of the ice on Antarctica is as a long term deep freeze storage site for grain and other foods. Again the costs of shipping and handling are prohibitive. COAL: There are coal deposits found along the coast of Antarctica. It is also very wide spread throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. These deposits were formed between 35 million and 55 million years ago when Antarctica was covered by ancient swamps. Coal forms in swamps as plants die and are buried before they can be completely decomposed. They are then covered by other sediments such as sand and mud. This burial allows the hydrocarbons in the coal to be preserved for future generations to use. Coal is used as a source of direct heat and also to generate electricity in coal burning power plants. The main problem of developing coal in Antarctica is that the cost of mining and delivering the coal is so much higher than the cost of coal in the rest of the world market. It may be possible for coal to be used in some small research stations for a source of heat. PETROLEUM: Petroleum deposits are formed when plants and small animal remains are buried in a marine environment by sand and mud. These remains then build up as hydrocarbons and are trapped by a layer of rock that the hydrocarbons cannot pass through. These cap rocks then store the petroleum underground until it is pumped out by wells. At this time there has been no petroleum exploration attempted and there are no known petroleum resources in Antarctica. Most of the speculation about petroleum in Antarctica comes from finding petroleum on the other Southern continents which were at one time connected together. The petroleum deposits thought to be on the offshore regions of Antarctica would probably be most feasible to obtain although they would have to be exceptionally large to be considered for exploitation because of the following enormous exploration and development problems: -Deeper water over the continental shelves; -The presence of sea ice and icebergs; -Short work season and hostile climate. Comparisons with other Gondwana continents suggest the existence of petroleum reserves in the interior of Antarctica. But these lie below the thick ice, ruling out development. This is due not only to the thickness of the ice but also the fact that it is sliding slowly towards the coast. This makes drilling through the ice and into the rock very difficult. METALLIC MINERALS: Mineral resources have not been found in great quantities so far due to the small amount of rock that is exposed. It is believed that since the other continents that were once attached to Antarctica to form Gondwana have metallic and nonmetallic minerals, that Antarctica probably has similar minerals. It is also known that rock layers such as those in Antarctica commonly contain large amounts of cobalt, chromium, nickel, vanadium, copper, iron and platinum group minerals. The search for sizable concentrations of metallic minerals below the ice will be a difficult prospecting venture which will require costly geophysical and geochemical surveying and core drilling. Geologists have found small deposits of minerals in Antarctica but these deposits are low in quality and occur in widely scattered places. The peninsula seems to have the highest probability of containing economic base-metal deposits. Most of the minerals were formed or deposited during the formation of Antarctica and the other continents that made up Gondwana. There are three basic process which could have formed these minerals: HYDROTHERMAL: When fluids such as water are heated by the earth's interior, they can carry dissolved minerals in their fluid state such as quartz, gold, etc. When the solution of liquid and dissolved minerals cools in a new environment, the minerals are deposited as a solid. (The same way that candy forms crystals as it cools and hardens.) MAGMATIC SEGREGATION: As liquid rock (magma) cools, the minerals in it separate. This is because the minerals have different densities and will separate with the denser minerals towards the bottom. (Think of how a bottle of Italian dressing separates into layers.) This separates the minerals into different layers resulting in concentrations of minerals in different places as the magma cools and hardens. SEDIMENTATION: As the earth is worn down and broken into pieces by wind, water, ice and other weathering processes, the pieces of the earth are carried by water into the oceans where they are deposited in layers. Since the pieces are different sizes and have different solubilities in water, they settle to the bottom and form different layers. This results in concentrations of the minerals separated into layers. Below is a table which list the minerals found in Antarctica, how they were formed, and how they are used. MINERAL FORMATION USE Iron Sedimentation Steel making Cobalt Hydrothermal Petroleum refining, pigments Chromium Magmatic Heat & corrosion resistant steel segregation Nickel Magmatic Stainless steel, heat and segregation corrosion-resistant steel Copper Hydrothermal Alloys with tin (Bronze) and Zinc Sedimentation Electrical equipment(Brass) Platinum Magmatic Chemical and metallurgic segregation industries, jewelry Manganese Sedimentation Steel making Uranium Hydrothermal Nuclear fuel, Groundwater Explosives Lead Hydrothermal Storage batteries, gasoline, construction ................ South Atlantic: Britain May Provoke New Conflict With Argentina February 23, 2010 richardrozoff Leave a comment Go to comments Stop NATO February 23, 2010 South Atlantic: Britain May Provoke New Conflict With Argentina Rick Rozoff On February 22 two major developments occurred in the Americas south of the Rio Grande. The two-day Rio Group summit opened in Mexico and Great Britain started drilling for oil 60 miles north of the Falklands Islands, known as Las Malvinas to Argentina. The meeting in Mexico was identified as a Unity Summit because for the first time the 24 members of the Rio Group (minus Honduras, not invited because of the illegitimacy of its post-coup regime) – Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela – were joined by the fifteen members of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago. (Belize, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica and Suriname are members of both organizations.) Ahead of the summit the Financial Times wrote, “The Mexican-led initiative, a clear sign of Latin America’s growing confidence as a region, will exclude both the US and Canada. Some observers believe it could even eventually rival the 35-member Organisation of American States (OAS), which includes the US and Canada and has been the principal forum for hemispheric issues during the past half century.”  In fact on the first day of the summit Bolivian President Evo Morales called for “a new US-free OAS,”  stressing Washington’s centuries-long history of perpetrating military coups, blackmail, looting of natural resources and, over the past generation, the scourge of neo-liberalism in the Americas. In 1986 the Rio Group grew out of the four-member Contradora Group consisting of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela which was formed in response to Washington’s Contra and death squad campaigns in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s. Part of the legacy Bolivia’s Morales was referring to. Coinciding to the day if not the hour of the beginning of the summit, the British Desire Petroleum company began exploring for oil and gas off the Falklands/Las Malvinas, seized from Argentina by Britain in 1833 and fought over by the nations in a 74-day war in 1982. “Neighbouring Argentina, which lays claim to the islands, is fiercely opposed to the drilling. Earlier this month, the Argentinian government filed a formal protest with the British government.”  Britain lost 255 soldiers in the conflict, the highest wartime fatalities it had suffered since the Korean War and the Malayan conflict. The British death toll in Afghanistan recently surpassed that number. London’s energy grab in the South Atlantic did not go unnoticed in Mexico, where 26 presidents and prime ministers were among the participants at the Unity Summit. Argentine President Cristina Fernandez denounced the British actions as “unilateral and illegal”  and a breach of her nation’s sovereignty. She further stated “There continues to be systematic violation of international law that should be respected by all countries….In the name of our government and in the name of my people I am grateful…for the support this meeting has given to our demands.”  Fernandez characterized the unanimous backing provided her at the summit as an “exercise in self-defence for all”  and blasted nations with permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council – she undoubtedly meant Britain, the United States and France – for “continu[ing] to use that place of privilege to disregard international law.”  Her Venezuelan colleague President Hugo Chavez, indicating the dangerous dimension a new British-provoked altercation with Argentina can escalate into, said, “The English are still threatening Argentina. Things have changed. We are no longer in 1982. If conflict breaks out, be sure Argentina will not be alone like it was back then.”  Before the summit began he said, “We support unconditionally the Argentine government and the Argentine people in their complaints. That sea and that land belongs to Argentina and to Latin America.”  He reiterated that position during his speech on February 22. While highlighting the military threat posed by Britain off the coast of Argentina, he alluded to a British submarine site in the Falklands/Las Malvinas and said “we demand not only [that] the submarine platform…be removed, but also [that] the British government…follow the resolutions of the United Nations and give back that territory to the Argentine People.”  Nicaragua’s President Daniel Ortega, also in attendance at the summit, stated “We will back a resolution demanding that England return Las Malvinas to its rightful owner, that it return the islands to Argentina.”  The Times of London quoted Marco Aurelio Garcia, foreign policy adviser to Brazil’s President Lula da Silva, as adding: “Las Malvinas must be reintegrated into Argentine sovereignty. Unlike in the past, today there is a consensus in Latin America behind Argentina’s claims.”  The comments by Venezuela’s president, addressing as they did the threat of a new military confrontation between Britain and Argentina, bear particular scrutiny in light of recent actions by London and statements by its head of state. In late December Britain conducted a two-day military operation off the coast of the Falklands/Las Malvinas which included the use of Typhoon multi-role fighters and warships. The exercises, code-named Cape Bayonet, “took place during a tour of the Falklands by British forces ahead of the start of drilling in the basin in February 2010″ and “simulated an enemy invasion….”  A news report at the time added, “Britain has strengthened its military presence in the Falklands since the  war and has a major operational base at Mount Pleasant, 35 miles from the capital Stanley. “The prospect of the islands transforming into a major source of oil revenue for Britain has raised the military’s argument for more funding to beef up the forces in South Atlantic.”  Four days before British drilling began off the islands, Prime Minister Gordon Brown stated “We have made all the preparations that are necessary to make sure that the Falkland Islanders are properly protected,”  although Argentine officials have repeatedly denied the possibility of a military response to British encroachments and provocations in the South Atlantic Ocean. On the same day, February 18, Argentina’s Vice Minister of Foreign Relations Victorio Taccetti accused Britain of “a unilateral act of aggression and subjugation”  in moving to seize oil and gas in the disputed region. Buenos Aires has prohibited ships from going to and coming from the Falklands/Las Malvinas through Argentine waters. What is at stake are, according to British Geological Survey estimates, as many as 60 billion barrels of oil under the waters off the Falklands/Las Malvinas. In late January a Russian military analyst explained that even that colossal energy bonanza is not all that Britain covets near the Falklands/Las Malvinas and further south. Ilya Kramnik wrote that “along with the neighboring islands controlled by the U.K., the Falklands are the de facto gateway to the Antarctic, which explains London’s tenacity in maintaining sovereignty over them and the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, as well as territorial claims regarding the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands under the Antarctic Treaty.” Regarding Antarctica itself, “Under the ice, under the continental shelf, there are enormous mineral resources and the surrounding seas are full of bio-resources. In addition, the glaciers of Antarctica contain 90% of the world’s fresh water, the shortage of which becomes all the more acute with the growth in the world’s population.”  A Chinese analysis of over two years earlier described what Britain in part went to war for in 1982 and why it may do so again: Control of broad tracts of Antarctica. “The vastness of seemingly barren, ice-covered land is uncovered and exposed to the outside world, revealing a ‘treasure basin’ with incredibly abundant mineral deposits and energy reserves….A layer of Permian Period coal exists on the mainland, and holds 500 billion tons in known reserves. “The thick ice dome over the land is home to the world’s largest reservoir for fresh water; holds approximately 29.3 million cubic kilometers of ice; and makes up 75% of earth’s fresh water supply. “It is possible to say that the South Pole could feed the entire world with its abundant supplies of food [fish] and fresh water…[T]he value of the South Pole is not confined to the economic sphere; it also lies in its strategic position. “The US Coast Guard has long had garrisons in the region, and the US Air Force is the number one air power in the region.”  The feature from which the preceding excerpts originated ended with a warning: “[T]he South Pole [Antarctic] Treaty points out that the South Pole can only be exploited and developed for the sake of peace; and can not be a battle ground. Otherwise, the ice-cold South Pole could prove a fiercely hot battlefield.”  Two days before the May 13, 2009 deadline for “states to stake their claims in what some experts [have described] as the last big carve-up of maritime territory in history,”  Britain submitted a claim to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf for one million square kilometers in the South Atlantic reaching into the Antarctic Ocean. An article in this series written five days afterward detailed the new scramble for Antarctica initiated by Britain and Australia, the second being granted 2.5 million additional square kilometers in the Antarctic Ocean in April of 2008.  A newspaper in the United Kingdom wrote about London’s million-kilometer South Atlantic and Antarctic ambitions beforehand that “Not since the Golden Age of the Empire has Britain staked its claim to such a vast area of land on the world stage. And while the British Empire may be long gone, the Antarctic has emerged as the latest battleground for rival powers competing on several fronts to secure valuable oil-rich territory….The Falklands claim has the most potential for political fall-out, given that Britain and Argentina fought over the islands 25 years ago, and the value of the oil under the sea in the region is understood to be immense. Seismic tests suggest there could be about 60 billion barrels of oil under the ocean floor.”  Last autumn a Russian news source warned about the exact initiative of this February 22 in stating “Many believe that the 1982 war between Britain and Argentina with almost 1,000 servicemen killed in the hostilities was all about oil and gas fields in the South Atlantic. In this sense, Desire Petroleum should certainly think twice before starting to capitalize on what was a subject of the bloodbath in 1982….” Regarding the territorial claims submitted by Britain last May (still in deliberations at the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf), the report pointed out London’s “eagerness to expand its Falkland Islands’ continental shelf from 200 to 350 nautical miles, which would enable Britain to develop new oil fields in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,” and ended with a somber warning: “Given London’s unwillingness to try to arrive at a political accommodation with Buenos Aires, a UN special commission will surely have tougher times ahead as far as its final decision on the continental shelf goes. And it is only to be hoped that Britain will be wise enough not to turn the Falkland Islands into another regional hot spot.”  Unlike the first South Atlantic war of 1982, when the regime of General Leopoldo Galtieri garnered no support from other Latin American nations, a future standoff or armed conflict between Argentina and Britain over the Falklands/Las Malvinas will see Latin American and Caribbean states acting in solidarity with Argentina. If the United Kingdom succeeds in provoking a new war, it in turn will appeal to its NATO allies for logistical, surveillance and other forms of assistance, including direct military intervention if required. In addition to the U.S. and Canada, Britain’s NATO allies in the Western Hemisphere include France and the Netherlands with their possessions and military bases in the Caribbean and South America. Britain is playing with fire and if it ignites a new conflict it could rapidly spread far beyond the waters off the southern tip of South America. 1) Financial Times, February 19, 2010 2) Prensa Latina, February 22, 2010 3) Radio Netherlands, February 22, 2010 4) Associated Press, February 22, 2010 5) Reuters, February 22, 2010 6) Deutsche Presse-Agentur, February 22, 2010 7) Ibid 8) The Times (London), February 23, 2010 9) Reuters, February 22, 2010 10) Xinhua News Agency, February 23, 2010 11) The Times, February 23, 2010 12) Ibid 13) United Press International, December 28, 2009 14) Ibid 15) Reuters, February 18, 2010 16) Xinhua News Agency, February 19, 2010 17) Russian Information Agency Novosti, January 28, 2010 18) People’s Daily, December 4, 2007 19) Ibid 20) Reuters, October 7, 2007 21) Scramble For World Resources: Battle For Antarctica Stop NATO, May 16, 2009 http://rickrozoff.wordpress.com/2009/08/28/scramble-for-world-resources-battle-for-antarctica 22) The Scotsman, October 23, 2007 23) Voice of Russia, September 16, 2009 ........................... Wednesday, 17 October 2007, 10:04 GMT 11:04 UK E-mail this to a friend Printable version UK looks to make Antarctica claim Iceberg in the Southern Ocean Image: BBC Claims can be made for up to 350 miles off existing territories The UK is looking to claim sovereignty over a large area of the remote seabed off Antarctica. The claim for an area around British Antarctica is one of a number being prepared by the Foreign Office, a spokeswoman said. Even if granted, those rights would not allow Britain to contravene the treaty that prohibits oil and gas tapping under the seabed. The spokeswoman labelled the move "a safeguard for the future". Mineral rights The claim, which the spokeswoman stressed is still being prepared in advance of a May 2009 United Nations deadline, could extend Britain's stake for Antarctic waters by more than 1 million sq km (386,000 sq miles) and is permitted under the Law of the Sea Convention. It would be a claim in name only, we wouldn't act because doing any mineral exploitation contravenes the treaty Foreign Office spokeswoman Map of existing British claim "This has been under consideration for many years," the spokeswoman said of the move, which she said will not affect the more recent environmental protections put into the Antarctic Treaty in 1991. "It would be a claim in name only, we wouldn't act because doing any mineral exploitation contravenes the treaty." 'Colossally irresponsible' The move does signal Britain's willingness to join the current rush by countries to try to secure their potential oil and gas rights to seabeds should circumstances change. The most notable recent example was the claim by Russia over the Arctic seabed. "It is essentially to safeguard for the future and if (the treaty) is abolished in the future we will have safeguarded our claim to that area," the Foreign Office spokeswoman said. They are... leading the charge halfway around the world for a new oil rush Charlie Kronick Greenpeace She added that any change to the ban on mineral exploitation in the Antarctic is "highly improbable". A spokesman for Greenpeace called the move "colossally irresponsible" and accused the British government of putting more effort into securing future oil rights than battling climate change. "When the UK is supposed to be leading the global charge on reducing carbon emissions, they are in fact leading the charge halfway around the world for a new oil rush," said Charlie Kronick. Disputed territory Currently, five-sixths of the Antarctic continent is claimed by seven countries and most of the existing British stake is also claimed by either Argentina or Chile. The British Antarctic Territory claim fans out from the south pole in a wedge that takes in more than 600,000 square miles. The area was first staked in 1908 and the Foreign Office says it now houses two permanent research stations. Britain has already submitted to the United Nations a joint claim with France, Spain and the Irish Republic for part of the Bay of Biscay. It is also in discussions with Iceland, Ireland and Denmark on a joint claim in the Hattan-Rockall area off the west coast of Scotland and is working on a claim to extend around the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and Ascension Island. "There are a number of coastal states submitting claims," the spokeswoman said, adding that the technology does not yet exist to reach mineral deposits that can sit as far as four or five miles under water. The deadline for submitting claims, which can be made for up to 350 miles (563 km) off existing territories, is May 2009. Researchers are currently compiling the geological case for the submissions, since under the Convention, any extensions must be based on the existence of continental shelf. ........................ Chile stands by Antarctica claim despite UK move 18 Oct 2007 22:58:22 GMT Source: Reuters SANTIAGO, Oct 18 (Reuters) - Chile will stand by its claim for a large chunk of Antarctic territory despite Britain's bid to extend its rival claim in the continent, the Chilean government said on Thursday. The Foreign Ministry said in a statement that Britain's plan to claim an extra one million square kilometres (386,000 square miles) of Antarctica "will not effect the rights of our country over the said territory". Britain outlined its plan on Wednesday, saying it would submit its bid to the United Nations. The claim could spark disputes with both Chile and Argentina, both of which view large chunks of Antarctica as their own. Some areas of the continent are disputed by all three countries. The claims come amid growing interest in the potential for mineral exploitation in both the North and South Poles. All nations claiming a part of Antarctica must outline their case before the United Nations by May 13, 2009, in what some experts are describing as the last big carve-up of territory in history. For now though, all such claims are theoretical because Antarctica is protected by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, which prevents mineral exploitation of the continent except for scientific research. Britain, Argentina and Chile are signatories of the treaty and in its statement the Chilean government reminded Britain that the document must be respected. ......................... Territorial claims in Antarctica From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Territorial claims of Antarctica) Jump to: navigation, search Research stations and territorial claims in Antarctica (2002). Currently there are seven claimant nations who maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica. These countries have tended to site their scientific observation and study facilities in Antarctica within their claimed territory. It is sometimes stated that the Antarctic Treaty defers or suspends these claims. However, Article IV of the treaty, which deals with the issue of territorial claims, merely specifies that previously asserted claims are not affected by the treaty. Contents [hide] * 1 Antarctic territorial claims o 1.1 Official claims o 1.2 Overlapping claims o 1.3 Unofficial Claims o 1.4 Unclaimed o 1.5 Historic claims * 2 Subantarctic island territories * 3 Antarctic Treaty * 4 References * 5 See also  Antarctic territorial claims Seven sovereign states had made eight territorial claims to land in Antarctica below the 60° S parallel before 1961. These claims have been recognized only between the countries making claims in the area. All claim areas are sectors, with the exception of Peter I Island. None of these claims has an indigenous population. The South Orkney Islands fall within the territory claimed by Argentina and United Kingdom; and the South Shetland Islands fall within the areas claimed by Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom. The UK, France, Australia, New Zealand and Norway all recognize each others' claims, which do not overlap. Prior to 1962, British Antarctic Territory was a dependency of the Falkland Islands and also included South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The Antarctic areas became a separate overseas territory following the ratification of the Antarctic Treaty. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands remained a dependency of the Falkland Islands until 1985 when they too became a separate overseas territory.  Official claims Territory Claimant Date Claim limits British Antarctic Territory British Antarctic Territory United Kingdom 1908 Antarctica, United Kingdom territorial claim.svg 20°W (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) 80°W New Zealand Ross Dependency New Zealand 1923 Antarctica, New Zealand territorial claim.svg 150°W (Dependency of New Zealand) 160°E French Southern and Antarctic Lands Adélie Land France 1924 Antarctica, France territorial claim.svg 142°2′E (District of French Southern and Antarctic Lands) 136°11′E Norway Peter I Island Norway 1929 Antarctica Peter I Island.png 68°50′S 90°35′W / 68.833°S 90.583°W / -68.833; -90.583 (Dependency of Norway) Australia Australian Antarctic Territory Australia 1933 Antarctica, Australia territorial claim.svg 160°E 136°11′E (External territory of Australia) 142°2′E 44°38′E Norway Queen Maud Land Norway 1939 Antarctica, Norway territorial claim.svg 44°38′E (Dependency of Norway) 20°W Antártica Chilena Province Antártica Chilena Province Chile 1940 Antarctica, Chile territorial claim.svg 53°W (Commune of Antártica Chilena Province) 90°W Argentine Antarctica Argentine Antarctica Argentina 1942 Antarctica, Argentina territorial claim.svg 25°W (Department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands) 74°W  Overlapping claims Territory Claimant Date Claim limits British Antarctic Territory British Antarctic Territory United Kingdom 1908 Antarctica, United Kingdom territorial claim.svg 20°W 80°W Antártica Chilena Province Antártica Chilena Province Chile 1940 Antarctica, Chile territorial claim.svg 53°W 90°W Argentine Antarctica Argentine Antarctica Argentina 1942 Antarctica, Argentina territorial claim.svg 25°W 74°W  Unofficial Claims Territory Claimant Date Claim limits Brazil Brazilian Antarctica Brazil 1986 Antarctica, Brazil territorial claim (green).svg 60°S  Unclaimed Territory Unclaimed limits Marie Byrd Land 90°W 150°W  Historic claims Territory Claimant Date Claim limits New Swabia Germany 1939 NewSwabiaMap.jpg 20°E (Former protectorate of Germany) 1945 10°W  Subantarctic island territories Main article: List of antarctic and sub-antarctic islands Four island territories located north of the 60° South circle of latitude are sometimes associated with the continent of Antarctica. None of these territories has an indigenous population. * Norway Bouvet Island (Norwegian dependency) * French Southern Territories * Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands (Australian overseas territory) * South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (British overseas territory)  Antarctic Treaty Main article: Antarctic Treaty System Territorial claims of Antarctica according to the Antarctic Treaty: New Zealand Australia France Norway United Kingdom Chile Argentina The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. The treaty has now been signed by 46 countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, and the now-defunct Soviet Union. The treaty set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. The Soviet Union and the United States both filed reservations against the restriction on new claims, and the United States and Russia assert their right to make claims in the future if they so choose. Brazil maintains the Comandante Ferraz (the Brazilian Antarctic Base) and has proposed a theory to delimiting territories using meridians, which would give it and other countries a claim. In general, territorial claims below the 60° S parallel have only been recognised among those countries making claims in the area. However, claims are often indicated on maps of Antarctica - this does not signify de jure recognition. All claim areas except Peter I Island are sectors, the borders of which are defined by degrees of longitude. In terms of latitude, the northern border of all sectors is the 60° S parallel which does not cut through any piece of land, continent or island, and is also the northern limit of the Antarctic Treaty. The southern border of all sectors collapses in one point, the South Pole. Only the Norwegian sector is an exception: the original claim of 1930 did not specify a northern or a southern limit, so that its territory is only defined by eastern and western limits. The Antarctic Treaty states that contracting to the treaty: * is not a renunciation of any previous territorial claim. * does not affect the basis of claims made as a result of activities of the signatory nation within Antarctica. * does not affect the rights of a State under customary international law to recognise (or refuse to recognise) any other territorial claim. What the treaty does affect are new claims: * No activities occurring after 1961 can be the basis of a territorial claim. * No new claim can be made. * No claim can be enlarged.  References 1. ^ Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 204, ISBN 0754644197 2. ^ Districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands excluding Adelie Land. 3. ^ Includes the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, which is associated with Africa 4. ^ However, the Norwegian government has stated in 2003 that the northern extent of the Norwegian territory conforms to general practice by extending 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the shore.  See also * Antarctic Treaty System * Antarctica * History of Antarctica [hide] v • d • e Antarctica Main articles Antarctic · History · Geography · Climate · Expeditions · Research stations · Field camps · Territorial claims · Antarctic Treaty System · Communications · Demographics · Economy · Tourism · Transport · Military activity in the Antarctic ContinentAntarctica.svg Antarctica portal Geographic regions Antarctic Peninsula · East Antarctica · West Antarctica · Extreme points of the Antarctic · List of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands · Antarctica ecozone Waterways: McMurdo Sound · Ross Sea · Weddell Sea Famous explorers Ernest Shackleton · James Clark Ross · Richard Evelyn Byrd · Roald Amundsen · Douglas Mawson · Robert Falcon Scott · more... ......................... British Antarctic Survey From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs. BAS is part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and has over 400 staff. It operates five research stations, two ships and five aircraft in and around Antarctica. BAS addresses key global and regional issues. This involves joint research projects with over 40 UK universities and more than 120 national and international collaborations. Contents [hide] * 1 History * 2 Bases o 2.1 Bases in Antarctica o 2.2 Bases on South Georgia o 2.3 Other sites * 3 Equipment o 3.1 Ships o 3.2 Aircraft * 4 Findings * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links  History Operation Tabarin was a small British expedition in 1943 to establish permanently-occupied bases in the Antarctic. It was a joint undertaking by the Admiralty and the Colonial Office. At the end of the war it was renamed the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) and full control passed to the Colonial Office. At this time there were four stations, three occupied and one unoccupied. By the time FIDS was renamed British Antarctic Survey in 1962, 19 stations and three refuges had been established. The Antarctic explorer Sir Vivian Fuchs was Director of BAS from 1958 to 1973.  Bases  Bases in Antarctica Rothera Research Station The BAS operates five permanent bases in the British Antarctic Territory: * Rothera Research Station on Adelaide Island * Halley Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf * Signy Research Station on Signy Island * Fossil Bluff Logistics Facility on Alexander Island * Sky Blu Logistics Facility in Ellsworth Land Of these bases, only Rothera and Halley are manned throughout the year. The remaining bases are manned only during the Antarctic summer.  Bases on South Georgia The BAS also operates two permanent bases on South Georgia: * King Edward Point Research Station at King Edward Point * Bird Island Research Station on Bird Island Both South Georgia bases are manned throughout the year.  Other sites BAS headquarters The headquarters of the BAS are in the United Kingdom, in the university city of Cambridge, on Madingley Road. This facility provides offices, laboratories and workshops to support the scientific and logistic activities in the Antarctic. The BAS also operates the Ny-Ålesund Research Station on behalf of the NERC. This is an Arctic research base located at Ny-Ålesund on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen.  Equipment  Ships RRS James Clark Ross at the wharf at Rothera base BAS operates two ships in support of its Antarctic research program. Whilst both vessels have research and supply capabilities, the RRS James Clark Ross is primarily an oceanographic research ship, whilst the RRS Ernest Shackleton is primarily a logistics ship used for the resupply of scientific stations. James Clark Ross replaced RRS John Biscoe in 1991 and the Ernest Shackleton was the successor to RRS Bransfield in 1999. Both vessels depart from the United Kingdom in September or October of each year, and return to the United Kingdom in the following May or June. Both vessels undergo refit and drydock during the Antarctic winter, but are also used elsewhere during this period. The James Clark Ross often undertakes scientific research on behalf of other organisations in the Arctic, whilst Ernest Shackleton is chartered into commercial survey work. The two civilian ships operated by the BAS are complemented by the capabilities of HMS Endurance, the Royal Navy's ice patrol vessel that operates in the same waters. The Endurance's two Lynx helicopters enable BAS staff to get to remote field sites that BAS aircraft cannot access.  Aircraft The BAS Dash-7 at Port Stanley Airport on the Falkland Islands. BAS operates five aircraft in support of its research program in Antarctica. The aircraft used are all products of de Havilland Canada and comprise four Twin Otters and one Dash 7. During the Antarctic summer the aircraft are based at the Rothera base, which has a 900 metre gravel runway. During the Antarctic winter conditions preclude flying and the aircraft return to the United Kingdom. The larger Dash 7 undertakes regular shuttle flights between either Port Stanley Airport on the Falkland Islands, or Punta Arenas in Chile, and Rothera. It also operates to and from the ice runway at the Sky Blu base. The smaller Twin Otters are equipped with skis for landing on snow and ice in remote areas, and operate out of the bases at Rothera, Fossil Bluff, Halley and Sky Blu.  Findings RRS Ernest Shackleton outward bound from Portsmouth, UK, 12 Nov 2008. In January 2008, a team of British Antarctic Survey scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported that 2,200 years ago a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). The biggest eruption in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.  See also * British Antarctic Territory * Faraday Research Station  References 1. ^ "Who We Are". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_bas/our_organisation/who_we_are.php. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 2. ^ "History". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_bas/our_history/stations_and_refuges/index.php. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 3. ^ a b "Research Stations in Antarctica". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/living_and_working/research_stations/index.php. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 4. ^ David Blake (September 2005). "Extreme Engineering". Ingenia (24). http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/articles.aspx?Index=334. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 5. ^ "BAS Cambridge". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_bas/our_organisation/cambridge.php. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 6. ^ "Ny-Ålesund Arctic Research Station". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/living_and_working/research_stations/ny_alesund/index.php. Retrieved 2008-01-02. 7. ^ a b "Research Ships". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/living_and_working/research_ships/index.php. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 8. ^ "RRS Bransfield - History". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_bas/our_history/bransfield.php. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 9. ^ "HMS Endurance — Ice Patrol Vessel". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/living_and_working/research_ships/hms_endurance/index.php. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 10. ^ a b "Aircraft in Antarctica". British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/living_and_working/aircraft_and_vehicles/aircraft/index.php. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 11. ^ Richard Black (2008-01-20). "Ancient Antarctic eruption noted". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7194579.stm. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  External links * BAS website * Discovering Antarctica — teaching and learning resources on Antarctica * BAS science programmes * BAS research stations * BAS Online Palaeontology Collection ............................. Comité de Descolonización De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre (Redirigido desde Comité de Descolonización de Naciones Unidas) Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Miembros del Comité (en verde oscuro) y observadores (verde claro). El Comité Especial de Descolonización o Comité Especial de los 24 de las Naciones Unidas es un organismo creado en 1961 y encargado de monitorizar e impulsar el proceso de descolonización de los territorios no autónomos bajo admnistración de potencias coloniales, con el fin de poner fin al colonialismo. En 1945, cuando se fundó la Organización de Naciones Unidas, existían más de 80 territorios no autónomos bajo régimen colonial, en los que vivían 750 millones de personas, lo que representaba una tercera parte de la población mundial. En 2010 aún existen 16 territorios no autónomos a ser descolonizados: Anguila, Bermudas, Gibraltar, Guam, Islas Caimán, Islas Malvinas, Islas Turcas y Caicos, Islas Vírgenes Británicas, Islas Vírgenes de los Estados Unidos, Montserrat, Nueva Caledonia, Pitcairn, Sahara Occidental, Samoa Americana, Santa Helena y Tokelau. También se encuentra ante la consideración del Comité de Descolonización el caso del territorio Estado libre asociado de Puerto Rico. Contenido [ocultar] * 1 Nombre oficial * 2 Origen * 3 Misión * 4 Integración * 5 Territorios no autónomos * 6 Enlaces externos * 7 Referencias [editar] Nombre oficial El nombre oficial completo del Comité es Comité Especial encargado de examinar la situación con respecto a la aplicación de la Declaración sobre la concesión de la independencia a los países y pueblos coloniales. [editar] Origen El Comite de Descolonización fue creado en 1961 por la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas con el fin de impedir las acciones represivas de ciertas potencias europeas en las colonias bajo su control y supervisar el proceso de descolonización definitiva de las mismas. [editar] Misión La misión del Comité es la de examinar la situación de los territorios autónomos bajo su supervisión y garantizar la aplicación de la Declaración sobre la concesión de la independencia a los países y pueblos coloniales y de las resoluciones y acciones internacionales llevadas adelante en el Primero y Segundo Decenio Internacional para la Eliminación del Colonialismo (1990-2010). [editar] Integración El Comité está integrado por 24 miembros: * Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua y Barbuda * Bandera de Bolivia Bolivia * Bandera de Chile Chile * Bandera de la República Popular China China * Bandera de la República del Congo Congo * Bandera de Costa de Marfil Costa de Marfil * Bandera de Cuba Cuba * Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica * Flag of Ethiopia.svg Etiopía * Flag of Fiji.svg Fiyi * Flag of Grenada.svg Granada * Bandera de India India * Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia * Bandera de Irán Irán * Bandera de Irak Iraq * Bandera de Malí Malí * Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papúa Nueva Guinea * Bandera de Rusia Rusia * Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg San Cristóbal y Nieves * Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Santa Lucía * Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg San Vicente y las Granadinas * Bandera de Sierra Leona Sierra Leona * Bandera de Siria Siria * Flag of East Timor.svg Timor Oriental * Bandera de Túnez Túnez * Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania * Bandera de Venezuela Venezuela [editar] Territorios no autónomos En 2010 aún hay 16 territorios en la lista de territorios no autónomos a ser descolonizados: Anguila, Bermudas, Gibraltar, Guam, Islas Caimán, Islas Malvinas, Islas Turcas y Caicos, Islas Vírgenes Británicas, Islas Vírgenes de los Estados Unidos, Montserrat, Nueva Caledonia, Pitcairn, Sáhara Occidental, Samoa Americana, Santa Helena y Tokelau. Además, se encuentra ante la consideración del Comité de Descolonización el caso del territorio Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. El 15 de junio de 2009 el Comité Especial de los 24 aprobó su más reciente Resolución en la cual reafirma el derecho inalienable del pueblo puertorriqueño a la libre determinación e independencia, de conformidad con la Resolución 1514 (XV) de la Asamblea General, y la aplicabilidad de los principios fundamentales de dicha resolución a la cuestión de Puerto Rico; y decide mantener la cuestión de Puerto Rico bajo examen continuo. Las potencias que aún controlan territorios no autónomos son: * Gran Bretaña (10): Anguila, Bermudas, Gibraltar, Islas Caimán, Islas Malvinas, Islas Turcas y Caicos, Islas Vírgenes Británicas, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Santa Helena * Estados Unidos (3): Guam, Islas Vírgenes de los Estados Unidos, Samoa Americana * Francia (1): Nueva Caledonia. * Territorios transferidos: o Gran Bretaña a Nueva Zelanda: En 1948 Gran Bretaña transfirió la soberanía de Tokelau a Nueva Zelanda, acto no reconocido por las Naciones Unidas. * Territorios que deben pronunciarse sobre su falta de autonomía: o Sahara Occidental: tras la retirada de la presencia de España de la zona en 1976 y su ocupación por Marruecos (e inicialmente también Mauritania), la ONU ratifica en 1990 que es el pueblo saharaui quien debe pronunciarse sobre su soberanía. [editar] Enlaces externos * "Las Naciones Unidas y la descolonización", Las Naciones Unidas y la descolonización, Naciones Unidas. * "Historia", Las Naciones Unidas y la descolonización, Naciones Unidas. [editar] Referencias 1. ↑ «Territorios no autónomos incluidos en la lista establecida por la Asamblea General en 2002». Archivado desde el original, el 12 de enero de 2010. «El 26 de febrero de 1976, España comunicó al Secretario General que a partir de dicha fecha daba por terminada su presencia en el Territorio del Sáhara y que estimaba necesario hacer constar lo siguiente: España se consideraba a partir de ese momento exenta de toda responsabilidad de carácter internacional en relación con la administración del Territorio, en vista de que había cesado su participación en la administración temporal establecida para el Territorio. En 1990 la Asamblea General reafirmó que la cuestión del Sáhara Occidental era un problema de descolonización que debía ser resuelto por el pueblo del Sáhara Occidental.». Obtenido de "http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comit%C3%A9_de_Descolonizaci%C3%B3n" .................... Page last updated at 14:12 GMT, Thursday, 18 February 2010 E-mail this to a friend Printable version Gordon Brown says UK is prepared in Falkland Islands Port Stanley, capital of the Falkland Islands Geologists say the seabed around the Falklands has substantial oil reserves The UK has made "all the preparations that are necessary" to protect the Falkland Islands, Prime Minister Gordon Brown has said. However, the Ministry of Defence has denied reports that a naval taskforce is on its way to the Falklands. Argentina has brought in controls on ships passing through its waters to the islands over UK plans to drill for oil. Shadow foreign secretary William Hague told the BBC the Royal Navy's presence in the region should be increased. The Sun newspaper reported that up to three ships were to join the islands' regular patrol vessel. BBC defence correspondent Caroline Wyatt understands the destroyer HMS York and the oil supply tanker RFA Wave Ruler are in the area, as well as HMS Clyde, which is permanently based there. However, the MoD said Britain already had a permanent naval presence in the South Atlantic as well as more than 1,000 military personnel on the islands. 'Very clear' Speaking on Gateshead-based Real Radio in the North East, Mr Brown said he did not expect to send a taskforce to the area. ANALYSIS BBC defence correspondent Caroline Wyatt Caroline Wyatt, BBC defence correspondent It's clear that Britain has the military assets it needs in or around the Falkland Islands to back up its diplomacy with Argentina - on the principle that diplomacy succeeds best when a nation can talk softly but carry a big stick. The MoD will only say that it is "maintaining" a deterrent force in the area, and that this is not a new taskforce - but it leaves little doubt that the UK has the means to defend the Falkland islanders already in place to back up its diplomatic stance. But at the same time, the British government does not want to escalate the current row with Argentina, even as it remains firm on Britain's right to explore for oil around the Falklands, with the prime minister and others emphasising that they see "sensible discussions" prevailing. Earlier this week, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton, the head of the Royal Air Force, drew attention to the situation in the South Atlantic in a speech to the International Institute of Strategic Studies, referring to the "increasingly tense situation" around the Falkland Islands to stress the need for maintaining air superiority. Q&A: The Falklands oil row Oil boom or no boom? Have Your Say: How serious is row? 'We always feel threatened' He said he hoped "sensible discussions" with Argentina would prevail, adding: "We have made all the preparations that are necessary to make sure the Falkland islanders are properly protected." Foreign Secretary David Miliband said all UK oil exploration in the area was "completely in accordance with international law". He added: "We maintain the security of the Falklands, and there are routine patrols continuing." After Argentina's invasion of the Falklands in 1982, a UK taskforce seized back control in a short war that claimed the lives of 649 Argentine and 255 British service personnel. The BBC's Andrew Harding in Buenos Aires said it was difficult to find anyone in Argentina who believed the Falklands were in danger of being at the centre of a military conflict. But Argentine Deputy Foreign Minister Victorio Taccetti said his country would take "adequate measures" to stop oil exploration. Meanwhile, speaking on BBC Radio 4's Today programme, Mr Hague called for "some sort of increased naval presence - it may just be one more ship visiting more regularly" in the region. He added: "That kind of thing would show very clearly to Argentina - with whom, again, we want friendly relations - that we will be very firm about this. It would send a signal not to misunderstand British intentions. "One of the things that went wrong in the 1980s is that the Argentines thought we weren't really committed to the Falkland Islands. So, we mustn't make that mistake again. Our commitment should be very clear." Buenos Aires claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, which it calls Islas Malvinas. It has previously threatened that any company exploring for oil and gas in the waters around the territory will not be allowed to operate in Argentina. Ocean bed On Tuesday, Argentine President Cristina Fernandez signed a decree requiring all vessels travelling between Argentina and the islands, or those wanting to cross Argentine territorial waters en route to the Falklands, to seek prior permission. But a drilling rig from the Scottish Highlands, the Ocean Guardian, is nearing the islands and is due to start drilling next week, the UK-based company Desire Petroleum has said. Last week, a ship carrying drilling equipment was detained by Argentine officials. Geologists say the ocean bed surrounding the Falklands could contain rich energy reserves. Last year, Argentina submitted a claim to the United Nations for a vast expanse of ocean, based on research into the extent of the continental shelf, stretching to the Antarctic and including the island chains governed by Britain. It is due to raise the issue at the UN next week. On Thursday, an MoD spokesman said the government was "fully committed" to the Falklands, adding: "A deterrence force is maintained on the islands." Foreign Office Minister Chris Bryant said it was important not to lose sight of the fact that the UK and Argentina were "important partners". But he added: "'We have no doubt about our sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and we're clear that the Falkland Islands government is entitled to develop a hydrocarbons industry within its waters." The waters surrounding the disputed islands are considered by the UK to be part of the British Overseas Territories. But Buenos Aires believes the UK is illegally occupying the Falklands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Operation Tabarin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Text document with red question mark.svg This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (May 2008) Antarctic expeditions International agreements 1932–33 International Polar Year 1957–58 International Geophysical Year 1959 Antarctic Treaty System British Empire / Commonwealth 1901–04 Scott's first expedition 1907–09 Shackleton's first expedition 1910–13 Scott's second expedition 1911–14 Mawson's first expedition 1914–17 Shackleton's second expedition 1921–22 Shackleton's third expedition 1929–31 Mawson's second expedition 1934–37 Graham Land expedition 1943–45 Operation Tabarin 1955–58 Trans-Antarctic Expedition France 1903–05 Charcot's first expedition 1908–10 Charcot's second expedition Germany 1901–03 Drygalski (Gauss) expedition 1911–12 Filchner expedition 1938–39 New Swabia expedition Japan 1910–12 Japanese Antarctic Expedition Norway 1910–12 Amundsen expedition United States 1928–30 Byrd's first expedition 1946–47 Operation Highjump 1947–48 Operation Windmill 1947–48 Ronne expedition 1955–56 Operation Deep Freeze v • d • e During World War II, Operation Tabarin was a small British military expedition launched from the UK in 1943 to the Antarctic to establish permanently-occupied bases. Contents [hide] * 1 Reasons for the expedition * 2 The expedition * 3 Reaction * 4 Post-war developments * 5 See also * 6 External links * 7 References  Reasons for the expedition There were several reasons for Tabarin. Prior to the start of the war, German aircraft had dropped markers with swastikas across Queen Maud Land in an attempt to create a territorial claim, see New Swabia. In 1943, British personnel from HMS Carnarvon Castle removed Argentine flags from Deception Island. There were also concerns within the Foreign Office about the direction of United States' post-war activity in the region. So, one reason was to establish solid British claims to various uninhabited islands and parts of Antarctica, reinforced by Argentine sympathies toward Germany. Secondly, there was a need to deny opportunities to the enemy. Germany was known to use remote islands as rendezvous points and as shelters for raiders, U-boats and supply ships. Also, in 1941, there had been a fear that Japan might attempt to seize the Falkland Islands, either as a base or hand them to Argentina, thus gaining political advantage for the Axis and denying their use to Britain. Deception Island, in the British South Shetland Islands, possessed a sheltered anchorage with an old Norwegian whaling station. In 1941, the British (aboard HMS Queen of Bermuda) had taken the precaution of destroying coal dumps and oil tanks there, to prevent their possible use by the Germans. It has also been suggested that the operation may have partially been a disinformation exercise, nominally to detect suspected German naval replenishment activity - information which was, in fact, being obtained from the cracking of the Enigma machine. Whether or not this was the case may be revealed when the remaining government files are released.  The expedition Led by Lieutenant James Marr, the fourteen strong team left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944. Marr had accompanied the British explorer Ernest Shackleton on his Antarctic expeditions on the 1920s. Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island (February 3), where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. British territorial claims were further enhanced by the issue of postage stamps.  Reaction The decision to launch Tabarin was not, apparently, a political decision. Winston Churchill was out of the country and a memo from him, following news of the bases in the press, also indicates that he was apparently unaware of the decision. In it, he expresses concern that the move may harm relations with the United States during the preparations for Operation Overlord (the invasion of Normandy). A reply from the Foreign Office indicated that the operation was launched not because the USA had failed to recognise British claims to the territory, but to reassert British territorial claims against Argentine and Chilean incursion.  Post-war developments Following the end of the War, in 1945 Operation Tabarin bases were handed over to the civilians of the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), subsequently renamed the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). The ownership of the South Shetland Islands has yet to be decided. British claims, and Argentine and Chilean claims, to the islands have been put to one side to allow scientific research to continue. The United States and Russia have reserved their right to make territorial claims.  See also * Operation Highjump * New Swabia * List of Antarctic expeditions * List of military operations  External links * Britain's Antarctic Heritage (BAS site) * Scouting Milestones pages on Scout Marr who went on to lead Operation Tabarin  References * Jackson, Ashley (2006). The British Empire and the Second World War. London: Hambledon Continuum. pp. 73–75. ISBN 1 85285 4170.